Languages of India

Indic Languages

The dendrogram displays the family structure of Indic languages spoken in India. The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages,a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family, are a major language family of South Asia. Apart from the Indic languages, other Indo-European languages spoken in India include English, French, Portuguese, etc.

Dravidian Languages

The Dravidian languages are a major language family of mainly in southern India. The Dravidian languages with the most speakers are Telugu, Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam, all of which have long literary traditions. Smaller literary languages are Tulu and Kodava.There are also small groups of Dravidian-speaking scheduled tribes, who live outside Dravidian-speaking areas, such as the Kurukh in Eastern India and Gondi in Central India.

Tibeto-Burman Languages

The Tibeto-Burman languages are the non-Sinitic members of the Sino-Tibetan language family. These languages are spoken across the Himalayas in the regions of Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh, and also in the Indian states of West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura and Mizoram. The name derives from the most widely spoken of these languages, namely Burmese and the Tibetic languages. These languages also have extensive literary traditions, dating from the 12th and 7th centuries respectively.

Other Languages

The dendrogram displays the family structures of Andamanese, Austro-Asiatic, Creole, Language Isolate, Pidgin, Sign Language, Tai-Kadai and Unclassified languages spoken in India. The Andamanese languages are spoken in Andamanese Islands; the Austro-Asiatic languages are spoken in Northeast India, the Nicobar Islands, and the East and Central India; the Creole languages are spoken in Andaman Islands, Kerala, Maharashtra, Daman and Diu Union Territory, and Nagaland; Majhwar(Language Isolate) is primarily spoken in Chattisgarh; Nefamese(Pidgin) is spoken in Arunachal Pradesh; and Tai-Kadai languages are spoken in parts of Northeast India.